View our privacy policy. Establishing with a forage grass will decrease red clover's curing time. 2018 yields of red clover averaged 4.83 and ranged from 4.32 to 5.07 tons per acre. A study in Pennsylvania showed that a one-year-old red clover stand (without harvest) contributed 70 pounds of nitrogen per acre to the first corn crop following it, while there was a benefit of 50 pounds of nitrogen per acre for the second corn crop grown one year later. It provides nitrogen for the grass and is excellent quality summer grazing. Prepared by Marvin H. Hall, assistant professor of agronomy. If oats are harvested for grain, the straw should be removed so that it will not shade or suppress the red clover. With red clover hay worth $80 a ton, you”re looking at an extra $80 to $240 per acre in yield the third year. per acre. LEARN HOW TO STOP THE INVASIVE SPOTTED LANTERNFLY, Coronavirus: Information and resources for the Extension Community, Download PDF Save For Later Print Purchase Print. )&>|O}ã Traditionally, three annual harvests are made in most of Pennsylvania. Unlike alfalfa, red clover will grow moderately well in slightly acid soils (Table 1). Agdex 122/15-1 Red Clover Seed Production This publication is a guide for red clover seed production. The use of chemical drying agents and hay preservatives may allow you to make red clover hay successfully under Pennsylvania's rainy conditions. You must have JavaScript enabled in your browser to utilize the functionality of this website. Plant about 9 lbs of seed per acre straight or 2 - 5 lbs per acre in a mix. This harvest timing is a compromise between red clover yield and quality. Red clover should be frost seeded at 15 to 20 lbs. has beed seen with seeding of single cut Red Clover with a cereal cover crop in alternating rows, with seed production in year 2. Although bumblebees and other wild bees are very effective Use of herbicides may be necessary when direct seeding red clover without a companion crop. Seeding rates above these levels increase forage yields slightly, but are not economically justifi ed. Red clover quality is comparable with alfalfa quality under similar harvest schedules (Table 3). Per Acre (LBS.) This means a longer period over which high-quality forage can be harvested. 107:16. Grass seed in varying combinations will make up the remaining weight. Red clover direct seeded in the spring without a companion crop will yield less total forage than when seeded with a companion crop to be harvested as a forage. In a study in Wisconsin, red clover fixed enough nitrogen to supply the equivalent of 160 pounds per acre of nitrogen fertilizer. Small ovoid, pinkish, nitrogen-fixing nodules can be found on the lateral roots if the plant is actively incorporating atmospheric nitrogen into protein nitrogen. Row Crop Realistic Yield Potential Crop Yield Units Realistic Yields/Acre Corn (grain) bushels 100-250 Corn (silage) wet tons 12-18 Cotton bales 1-3 Peanuts lbs 3,200 Rice bushels 144 -164 Red clover can be no-till seeded and is the easiest legume to establish using this method. Numerous stems with large trifoliate leaves arise from the crown region each year. However, maximum yields are obtained when soil pH is 6.0 or higher. Red clover should be seeded at a rate of 10 to 12 lb per acre in a pure stand and 6 to 8 lb per acre when seeded with a forage grass (Table 2). competition from the clover during the fall and winter, then seed the clover in mid- to late February. Seeding red clover in the spring (April to early May), alone or with a spring oat companion crop in a conventionally prepared seedbed, is common. Red Clover Variety Trial Results 2010-2019 k Download excel file below to view trial results with cuttings. Direct seedings of red clover can be made by broadcasting, band seeding, or fluid seeding. With proper management, you can expect these varieties to persist for two to three years after the establishment year. Refer to the current Penn State Forage Trial Report for red clover variety performance and resistance information. Varieties resistant to both northern and southern anthracnose and powdery mildew are recommended for use throughout the state. Kayseri) and red clover (Trifolium pratense L. cv. Seed yields range from 60-300 kg/ha (1-5 bu/acre) depending on the season and management. It is very well suited for use as the forage legume in short rotations with corn. Red clover seeded into fescue sods has increased yields about 35 percent above those … Refer to the current Penn State Forage Trial Report for red clover variety performa… This more aggressive harvest management in the seeding year than has traditionally been implemented provides greater forage and nutrient yields and has not negatively affected yield in the year after establishment. 19 RED CLOVER Dry-matter yield of red clover, in tons dry matter per acre, seeded at two locations. When sowing red clover by itself, the seeding rate is 10 to 12 lbs. JavaScript seems to be disabled in your browser. Early spring seeding in winter grains or grass pastures when the soils are honeycombed from frost also has been successful. Total yields from the seeding year and per cut … • It converts atmospheric Nitrogen into a plant usable form. Best establishment occurs when red clover is not planted deeper than ¼ inch. Red clover quality does not decline as rapidly with maturity as does alfalfa quality. Red clover is a short-lived perennial adapted to wetter, lower-pH soils than alfalfa. A lower nitrogen contribution is more common, however. Look for good disease resistance and persistence in a red clover variety. However, excess N fertilizer also reduces nodulation and substitutes for atmospheric N that would have been fixed by the nodule. Red clover can be established as a pure stand, with or without a companion crop, seeded with forage grass, or sod-seeded into a grass sod to improve the existing stand. It is a vigorous establisher and good yielder in the establishment year. Why do we need this? Starter fertilizer applications up to 20-60-20 lb per acre may benefit red clover seedings. To ensure adequate nodulation, red clover seed should be inoculated with Rhizobium trifolii bacteria and a sticking agent just before seeding. Red clover silage, if properly harvested and stored, provides a high-quality forage. Tohum Islah) in Erzurum, Turkey for 5 years between 1991 and 1995. Sowing too deep will reduce the germination dramatically. Red clover has a thick tap root that grows to a length of 24-36 inches. Spring-seeded red clover can be harvested three times during the seeding year if growing conditions are favorable. Lateral roots arising from the tap root are concentrated mainly in the upper 5 inches of the soil. )Wuú`p³[çrt>5@>¼ Tennessee Farm and Home Science. Red clover is a short-lived perennial. Leaf loss, as the plants of mammoth red clover approached maturity, apparently accounted for an actual decrease in the yield of dry matter. For example, for every 8 lbs. This harvest schedule will not allow red clover to reseed itself but will minimize the occurrence of black patch disease and optimize yield and quality. Red clover for pasture renovation Red clover is an excellent choice for seeding in grass sods. Look for good disease resistance and persistence in a red clover variety. Atmospheric N is captured (fixed) and converted into plant N by well-nodulated plants. ü£‚¯ŽÖDÑv‡9@°»‡j7º‚Ã/,m¯§-Lz=©³v#Œx9\"‡:Á%ö÷mvRÒè8}ÇÕAtoÐ6Qé_ẍ́µ³lmå}ÊkÕ2"-2£ˆœ¢8ÚJõŒÁ³Å°ÙNÙwÙ«ÖàÈ*ȳm°î U6c]*QÍuzÆì¥. If Arrowleaf clover is the only clover in a It can also be seeded with an end-gate seeder (or fertilizer spreader) and dragged. The soil should be rolled after sowing to increase soil moisture contact with the seed. It is characterized by rapid spring growth and low winterhardiness, which contributes to its short-lived nature. This harvest timing is a compromise between red clover yield and quality. Frost seeding is Red clover is usually drilled with a spring grain cover crop using the "grass seed box" on the drill. 2 Established red clover stands should be harvested at prebloom or early bloom. Table 1. Entering your postal code will help us provide news or event updates for your area. In the hay cutting trial at the Auburn Extension Research Center in Crossville, Alabama–during their worst drought in 25 years–Barduro was Red clover, a short-lived perennial, usually produces two or three hay crops per year. When grown on poor soil and under unfavorable conditions, the yield may be less than this, while on the best of soils with a favorable season the yield may run Yield (lb DM/acre) tall fescue + 60 lbs N/acre 2975 tall fescue + white clover 3155 tall fescue + white clover + red clover + annual lespedeza 3860 Adapted from: H. Fribourg. Clover can be difficult to establish in permanent pasture, though, and this obstacle may limit greater adoption by producers. White clover should be seeded at only 2 -3 pounds per acre because of the large number of µ8De@$’“öJé?O þò•J$Œ‹ß‚Ïn´Á쯩©Nµ0;zB÷¾'¹-qÿ䖑äýê§ú µûíîýíå¥uiy›ê$%†"¦>ê‚+=]Ñ;»Û$cÜ71þw ÑÉí F‹Õl¦TÕ¯. For a first­ time grower, it is wise to plan for a low yield (1-2 bu) rather than higher seed yields. Tohum Islah) mixtures with alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. cv. Fluid seeding requires special equipment; therefore, a custom applicator is recommended. The benefits of establishing clover in grass pasture are well-known. moth red clover, the highest yield was obtained at the full bloom stage. By entering your email, you consent to receive communications from Penn State Extension. “Farmers should make sure they purchase tested and more recently developed varieties of named red clover, and it would be best if the varieties were certified,” says Smith. When you mix it with grass, the rate drops to 8 lbs. Each situation has special requirements that should be considered. The highest An experiment was conducted in order to investigate hay yield and nitrogen harvest in binary smooth bromegrass (Bromus inermis Leyss cv. Keep in mind local conditions and your experience as a producer when using this information. Benefits of red clover • Red clover is high yielding with yields of 12 to 16 t DM/ha achievable when grown with ryegrass. Red clover biomass was 1.9% N in the fall and contained 61 to 96 N pounds per acre (Figure 1). However, red clover is more difficult to cure for hay than other legumes. Two pounds of white clover and 4 pounds of red clover per acre broadcast the last two weeks of February should provide an In the spring, red clover biomass was 3.9% N and contained 31 to 131 N pounds per acre. However, a larger portion of the forage will be red clover when seeded without the companion crop. Plant white clover seed at 1 to 3 pounds PLS per acre in 20 to 24 inch rows. Get notified when we have news, courses, or events of interest to you. Rosemount ( Dakota County ) postal code will help maintain better stands following... 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Moderately well in slightly acid soils with pH less than 5.5, nodulation and substitutes for atmospheric N that have! Mix it with grass, the rate drops to 8 lbs 8-10 lbs per acre clover,.